The health risks of modern gmo crops
They also warn that multinationals do not take into account that transgenic technology might have broad social and ethical implications.
Gmo papaya health risks
Currently approved GM crops developed through specific genetic additions or subtractions are as safe as conventional and organic crops developed via random genetic shuffling. There is scientific confidence that GM crops do not represent greater risks than those already present in conventional agriculture and that any new risk posed by GM crops could be identified, managed and prevented Prakash, Transgenic plants, in contrast, have been produced only in the last 2 or 3 decades and usually differ by one, or at most a small number, of genes from the parent strain, permitting the argument that they are less likely to give rise to new, potentially dangerous gene products. Plant breeders have generally screened for toxins that are typical of the plant group from which a crop was domesticated and have excluded plants that have high concentrations of the compounds. It was concluded that transgene expression in the lines being studied was intrinsically as stable as that of the corresponding endogenous genes; both GM and control lines showed similar stability in agronomic performance. Bt Rice has been engineered to express cry genes providing resistance to major lepidopteran insects affecting rice. Virus resistance makes plants less susceptible to diseases caused by such viruses, resulting in higher crop yields. The concept of substantial equivalence has a long history in safety testing of GE foods. To date, no harmful effects on mammalian health have been found by feeding commercialized transgenic crops. Livestock and poultry. Regulations and restrictions on GM crops have been considered as obstacles which must be reduced to allow the world's population to take complete advantage of what such technology is offering Potrykus, ; Pawlak, Why are GM foods produced? ABSTRACT The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. Another example of directly improving food micronutrients comes from Iron Rice which is a GM rice having increased iron content obtained by inserting a gene from the Aspergillus niger fungus into the rice genome Prakash, ; Lucca,
Transgenic modification GMtraditional and modern, applied to plant and animal food sources GMFs hold potential for improving human nutrition and health provided that the capabilities for using GM crops are available in the developing as well as the developed world.
There is, however, disagreement as to whether many of the compounds are beneficial or toxic at the concentrations consumed in herbal medicines or dietary supplements see, for example, Patisaul and Jefferson, Regulation and risk assessment.
New and possibly toxic glycoalkaloid aglycones can be produced in such somatic hybrids, even though they have not been found in any of the parental lines.
Many secondary metabolites function as protective agents, for example, by absorbing damaging ultraviolet radiation Treutter,acting as antinutrients Small,or killing or halting insects and pathogens that damage crops Dixon, Dietary testing of transgene products, or plants expressing transgenes, presents some unique problems, since the compound to be tested will itself be a nutrient and the maximum tolerated dose MTD is likely to be very high.
Effects of genetically modified crops
These new compounds have apparently resulted from bringing together substrates and enzymes which have not previously been in contact. Groups opposing GM crops have presumed that conventional crops do not represent risks for the environment and food safety and, as such, new crop varieties produced by conventional methods are not controlled by a regulatory environmental system. It is also crucial to ensure that GM crops designed to produce industrial products do not inadvertently enter the human food chain or contaminate food crops with their transgenes, if these traits may pose a risk to the environment or to human health. More than 18 studies involving feed from GM crops used in nutrition for many farm animals have been conducted since Although not enough cases have been described to permit generalizations to be made, new varieties developed by traditional crossing appear somewhat more likely to show human toxicity than transgenic varieties. Genetic modification through transgenic technology which uses molecular biology tools is more powerful and precise in achieving the desired goals than conventional breeding. The present and projected increasing demand for fish suggests that GM fish may become important in future in both the developed and developing worlds.
Initially GM seed developers wanted their products to be accepted by producers and have concentrated on innovations that bring direct benefit to farmers and the food industry generally. Agricultural practice.
Indeed, figure 2. The methods involved are presently inefficient and expensive. While theoretical discussions have covered a broad range of aspects, the three main issues debated are the potentials to provoke allergic reaction allergenicitygene transfer and outcrossing.
No genetically modified microorganism is currently used in foods although some are used to produce food ingredients.
Unintended effects associated with the genetic-engineering process for example, DNA changes resulting from plant tissue culture. Science-based reasoning and accumulated research regarding crop improvement have allowed the scientific community to support GM crops.
based on 10 review