Sumerian and nile valley civilizations and comparison betw
River valley civilizations
Ziggurats were stepped mounds or towers built of sun-dried mud bricks. Military power was crucial both to hold back nomad attackers from outside and to protect each city-state's complex of canals and fields from attacks from competing neighboring cities. Again consult your text for exactly how Enkidu was recruited to join civilization, and what this story shows about the era's own definition of civilized living. They had little of vocabulary, stone tools, believed in god, and had boats. Peripheral peoples ie peoples on the edge, or periphery, of a more settled, advanced area eventually learn the a core area's technology, but keep their own border military strength. The Gilgamesh story thus tells us a number of things about Mesopotamian civilization. Next, Mesopotamia's rivers were what might be called "mean" rivers at least as compared to the Nile, which we'll talk about next. Various Egyptians then set out, independently, to try to figure out for themselves how to accomplish the advanced irrigation, writing, etc about which they were hearing. Certainly they included showing due respect to gods and their priests , but mostly they had to do with good human behavior towards each other.
Thus travel on the Nile is relatively easy until the dividing line of the first cataract which is also usually the dividing line between Egypt and Nubia, also known as the Sudan. Thus we are told: If a man has put out the eye of a free man, they shall put out his eye If he breaks the bone of a [free] man, they shall break his bone If he puts out the eye of a villain semi-free man or breaks the bone of a villain, he shall pay one maneh of silver If he puts out the eye of a [free] man's slave or breaks the bone of a [free] man's slave, he shall pay half his price While in 21st century terms this may seem shocking all men are clearly not equal before the lawat the time it must have reflected unquestioned reality.
Differences between mesopotamia egypt and indus valley
Let's start by making it clear that "civilization" doesn't mean "nice" or "good. Peripheral peoples ie peoples on the edge, or periphery, of a more settled, advanced area eventually learn the a core area's technology, but keep their own border military strength. Again, the city-state form was one that developed very, very quickly. Indus River Valley Civilization, c. Priests and temples also survived by building temples that served more and more Egyptians, and by re-interpreting ideas of the afterlife to say that it might be possible for all Egyptians - if they managed to carry out lesser versions of the early royal death rituals more on this later. It is quite likely that they were did so having heard that the Sumerians had already done something of the sort, but since all of their symbols are different, it is fairly clear that they at most borrowed the idea that it was possible, rather than the system of writing itself. If they persist, they usually also in some way reflect the geography of an area. Finally, the location of the area also offered its settled peoples difficulties. Your study question for this larger topic is: Understand the major dynamics and stages of emerging states, rulers and empires in Mesopotamia, from the era of earliest Sumerian city-states through Hammurabi's Babylonian empire. Guideline Characteristics of Civilization Clearly all early civilizations must share some common characteristics, since they are all classified as part of the same, new catagory of "civilization.
The Sumerians developed a writing called cuneiform. Perhaps it began with symbols indented into clay markers, sent along to record how many say bushels of grain started out in a cart carrying taxes from a far field to a city temple.
Similarities between sumer and egypt
Nomads especially came in from the east and the northeast, trampling fields, looting centers, killing and enslaving. These elites came from land owning families however much the land was theoretically the pharaoh's, but the M. Hammurabi's Code's "one size fits all" limitations on married women. Some of the largest ziggurats housed important complexes on each level, with the ground level serving as a market center and storage area for the taxes, which took up a lot os space because they were paid in kind. In contrast, Egypt's pyramids were tombs to keep safe the bodies of dead pharaohs, in order that their spirits, in the first crucial years after their death, would have a safe place to return, as they negotiated the journey to the afterlife, where they were expected to continue to look out for Egypt's interests. The gods happened to hear this, and happened to feel like intervening again, the sense is that they gods might just as easily have enjoyed watching Gilgamesh mistreat his people. The basic belief said that, one the moment of becoming Pharaoh, a man became a living god, the son of the sun god originally Re representing Egyptians to the gods, and keeping Egypt in tune with the forces of nature and those gods. Surpluses were relatively small, there wasn't enough "good life" for everyone to have it; people weren't equal even in theory. Most seem to have been created perhaps toward the end of the Middle Kingdom or during the subsequent New Kingdom era of c. Egyptians used ink on papyrus for their permanent records, which certainly were therefore lighter and more easily stored than Mesopotamia's clay tablets of course, they were also more easily destroyed. They had done this by about BCE, and they then developed civilization within the city-state form for the next 7 centuries or so. Geographic Context: Egypt as the "Gift of the Nile" Map of Egypt and Nubia Sudan Areas Egypt is often called the "gift of the Nile" with the term "gift" emphasizing both how lucky the Egyptians were in the behavior and location of their particular river, and how much their civilization was shaped by the Nile's especially fortunate characteristics. All though they both supported having a patriarchal leader or king, Egypt had a strong, centralized government, whereas Mesopotamia was decentralized, and built based on small city-states operating independently. They were many scholars believe literally jumping off points for the dead ruler's soul, plus safe repositories for his body during period of its journey through the afterlife. Thus Egyptian and Indus civilizations were invented independently by the peoples of those lands.
Finally, Hammurabi's law code tells us a good deal about both 2nd millennium Mesopotamian society and its most basic values. But especially as compared to other early civilizations, Egyptian women did very well, losing relatively few absolute legal rights, and maintaining that position throughout the period while most early civilizations saw women's rights increasingly limited as time went on.
In the case of Mesopotamia, what they reflected was the history and reality of the irrigation on which earliest civilizations depended.
If a free man's wife was accused by her husband, but she was not caught while lying with another man, she shall make affirmation by a god and return to her house [ie, she can't be thrown out by her husband just on his accusation] If a woman so hated her husband that she has declared, "You may not have me," her record shall be investigated at her city council, and if she was careful and not at fault, even though her husband has been going out and disparaging her greatly, that woman, without incurring any blame at all, may take her dowry and go off to her father's house [ie take the property she brought to the marriage - the dowry - and leave her husband with no stain on her character].
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