Modernization vs tribalism in kenya essay

This is the only possibility that can keep leaders from becoming persons who advocate interests of a particular group. In search for long-term solutions to these questions this essay shows how ill-founded methodologies tend to substitute equal citizenship among citizens in favor of the model of exclusion founded upon ethnic affiliation.

types of tribalism

Important issues such as how to form a nation based on political consensus and ethnic identities have not been addressed since independence. Ethnic identities, from the African perspective, assume a triple history: pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial.

Modernization vs tribalism in kenya essay

When Augustine Karekezi, a Rwandan Jesuit, was asked in an interview to link the role of churches in Rwanda with what happened there in he said: My faith as a Christian has been affected seriously, in the sense that I cannot realize that such evil could happen in a country where so many people are Christians and where there are so many Catholics, over sixty five percent, with such influence in education. This expectation did not become reality. This idea is so deeply ingrained that few ever bother to question it. The challenge of integrating cultural identities in the processes of political integration and democratization is closely related to the problematic concepts of nation-state, citizenship, and common good. Such observation brings us close to the need of understanding the relationship between ethnic identity and the common good. But we can begin a national conversation about who we really are as people and how we build a Kenya for Kenyans and an Africa for Africans. And, for the most part, no central authority enforced a shared set of laws through a monopoly of violence. As they grew, such groups, initially defined by kinship relations, developed common ways of responding to and relating with the world around them, as well as systems to manage relations within the group. When faced with elections therefore, voters continue to express old tribal solidarities rather than deciding based on ideology or policy. The idea that our current ethnic communities have survived unchanged from ancient times is plainly false. In some places, colonisation took a different form, which did not create and emphasise tribal politics. An alliance between scientific authority and political power, as in America, was needed for the task. Or that such a project would not itself be vulnerable to capture by a ravenous and oppressive elite seeking to legitimise its rule, as has happened in Rwanda. In view of trying to understand the dynamics of this phenomenon one has to find out the real causes of the situation. It could also be said that the problem of ethnocentrism is related to the crisis of citizenship, lack of political consensus, economic insecurity and the lack of an agreed-upon concept of the common good.

Ethnic identities are not evil in themselves as it has been portrayed by the forces of colonization and post-colonial politics. The important concern for them is enabling their members to control the state. This situation has resulted into fighting to control the state.

causes of tribalism in africa pdf

It ensures security, continuity, and authority. Christian churches have failed to play their prophetic role even in situations of severe human rights violations because they have taken sides by playing in the hands of partisan politics, and thereby fall into the trap of ethnocentrism.

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The Common Good in Kenya