The latter focus appears to be especially promising since a systematic review had shown that cortisol reduction is one of the most reliable effects of music therapy Koelsch and Stegemann, Skin-to-skin contact is now a standard routine in many neonatal care units and it may be the most natural way to deliver music to the preterm infant in a multi-sensory and family-integrated manner Gooding et al.
Better feeding and sucking outcomes were reported in one study using live music and in two studies using recorded music. The most recent systematic review of randomized controlled trials RCT dates from Of particular interest are the evaluation of cortical gray and white matter volumes, patterns of functional connectivity, measures of language development and executive functions.
The parents, if available and willing, are involved and integrated individually in the therapeutic process; e. Search Methods for Identification of Studies We searched 13 electronic databases and trial registers from their first available date until August Vianna et al.
In another recent work, a set of guidelines for music-based interventions is suggested to improve reporting and advance evidence-based practice. The 72 papers of most relevance to the topic were comprehensively entered into a spreadsheet designed for methodological evaluation.
Rigorous studies evaluating stress levels are also warranted, e. Live music is beneficial to preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit environment.