Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities.
PhD theses are usually over two hundred pages. All students must have a full professor as an academic advisor director de tesis and a tutor, who is usually the same person.
A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation.
A candidate who is not recommended for the degree after the second defense must normally withdraw from the program.
The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries. Spain[ edit ] The former Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA lasted two years and candidates were required to complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied.
Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic.
A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis.